Grand Unification Theory of Cold Fusion (and a few other things)
Ok, so here is my theory about cold fusion, which actually might answer questions about a few other things in nature. I am refining my theory continuously so please be patient and make comments if you would like! I am still adding references to publications so I will not leave anyone out and I did not come up with this theory without a lot of input from other’s publishings. This includes but is not limited to publications from Dr. Storms, Dr. Celani, Dr. Hagelstein, Dr. Ahern, Dr. Widom and Mr. Larsen and others. I would like to thank the crew at Vortex; Jed, Terry, Axil, David, JoJo, Abd etc. for keeping me interested in this subject. All of the documents posted by Jed Rothwell at http://lenr-canr.org and http://www.newenergytimes.com by Steven Krivit have been helpful as well as the group at the CMNS Google group, especially Peter Gluck who is a wise soul. Lastly, please realize that I may be wrong so if you do read this hopefully you will walk away with a net gain in useful knowledge compared to your initial state of mind…
Cold Fusion, a Case of Life Imitating Science
Stewart D. Simonson
8/6-8/30/2012 Rev 18
Dedicated in Memory of
(29 March 1927 – 3 August 2012)
(June 9, 1947 – May 14, 2004)
“Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To know that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.”
The more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa.
–Heisenberg, uncertainty paper, 1927
Since Pons & Fleishmann identified anomalous heat effects in 1989 (at the time labeled “Cold Fusion”), determined scientists have studied the effect in earnest in order to discover the fundamental cause(s). Identifying the cause and optimizing the effect could possibly lead to a worldwide clean source of energy and help solve our climate change crisis. Published theories outlining the primary causes include, but are not limited to: Cold Fusion, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs), Hydrinos, Deep Dirac Levels, Beta Decays and the production of Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons, Sonofusion, Crackfusion as well as others. It is generally believed that the effect is nuclear in nature due to the wide results produced by many independent laboratories and companies researching the subject. Some common traits seen in many of these reactions are as follows:
- Low level anomalous, continuous heat emission(mWatts to kWatts claimed), sometimes lasting for days, weeks or months with moderate, little or no external stimulation
- Various nuclear reaction products including , but not limited to Photons, UV light, Visible Light, X-Rays, Gamma Rays, Gravity waves, Tritium, Helium as well as condensed matter resulting from the
- General sensitivity of the effect due to electromagnetic radiation including UV, Laser, electric arc discharge and or current as well as ultrasonic radiation.
- “Heat after Death Effect” in which the reaction continues to carry on after external stimulation is removed, sometimes for days.
- Effect seems to occur in cracks or voids within a lattice and also after high loading of a metallic lattice with hydrogen or deuterium.
- Similar effects have been claimed within gasses gas excited by a coil and plasma arc for ionization followed by high voltage spark induction.
- Similar effects have been studied as emanating from lightning strikes and ball lightning.
- Collapsed Bose Einstein Condensates resulting in “Bosanova” explosions and possible disappearance of atoms and/or bosons.
In general, the field suffers from a few too many theories to try and satisfy all of the above witnessed anomalous heat events. I recognize that this is ANOTHER ONE. Up until now, most theories have considered these effects to be primarily based on nuclear fusion related processes (cold or hot) and/or low energy nuclear reactions but are baffled by why these reactions are not emitting large quantities of deadly radiation.
This paper summarizes a NEW theory for this anomalous heat effect which utilizes one of the only other known nuclear processes to exist in the universe, the birth, existence and evaporation of collapsed or dark matter. In extreme cases, the gravitational pull of the dark matter can absorb light rays or photons and these are widely known in culture as “black holes”. Macro scale dark matter is predicted to be at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy and exist in many others galaxies and areas within the universe. It is also believed that micro or quantum black holes and/or dark matter may exist throughout the universe. Dark matter or micro/quantum scale black holes are less known due to an incomplete theory of quantum gravity at Planck level scales. It is however believed that dark matter persists in nature and may actually account for a larger part of the overall mass within the universe along with dark energy. I believe that Dark Energy is the kinetic energy of Dark Matter along with the radiation that it gives off. Dark matter can be quantified using the same properties as atomic particles – mass, angular momentum and charge.
It is known that stars above a certain mass can collapse into a “black hole” at the end of their life. The black hole description merely means that they are so dense that their gravitational pull is strong enough to bend and absorb visible radiation (light rays) in their vicinity. It is believed that stars also collapse into other levels of dense matter referred to as brown dwarfs, white dwarfs or neutron stars. It is also recently discovered that black holes actually evaporate over time through the exchange of matter and ions at their surface or event horizon. As most things in nature, they prefer to be in equilibrium with their environment. The largest black holes exist in the coldest parts of space. The smallest black holes happen to be the hottest. Hawking predicted that in the vacuum of space, quantum particles and anti-particles will trigger evaporation at the surface of a black hole as one of the pairs are “trapped” by the black hole and the other is emitted as radiation. As the ions pass the event horizon the black hole in turn will radiate as a black body a spectrum of primarily low energy nuclear particles such as photons, quarks and gluons, etc. Much of this radiation will manifest itself as HEAT.
It is theorized that the minimum size of a micro black hole is the Planck mass, or approx. 22 micrograms. Below this mass it is thought that dark matter may be unstable and evaporate instantly. Above this mass, the dark matter may be of sufficient mass to take on the properties of any other particle with mass, angular momentum and charge. Since dark matter and/or micro-black holes are very hot, it is believed that they may evaporate very quickly within their environment. If they do persist in nature, one theory suggests they may take on the properties of a weakly interacting massive particle, or WIMP
Why does the radiation from dark matter emit itself to the observer as primarily low level radiation? To explain that you must understand that the pull of gravity at the surface of collapsed matter is large. In order for radiation to escape from dark matter or a black hole’s event horizon it must overcome this gravity and in doing so it loses much of its energy. This is because the velocity of electromagnetic radiation is always emitted at the speed of light and therefore for this to hold constant there has to be a shift in wavelength at a given frequency. This is a good thing else we would all be subject to harmful radiation.
Recently, at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, a concern was made public that the collider might create micro black holes from high energy particle collisions. This work was done by Chan and others and listed on reference at the bottom of this paper. It was worried that these black holes might in turn cause destruction through further collapse of matter or emission of high energy particles. Studies were done to show that based upon some assumptions of quantum gravities’ effects and assuming additional dimensions of space and time all wrapped up at quantum scales that indeed the Collider imparts enough energy to create micro black holes or collapsed matter. It has been estimated that a collision energy of between 1-4 TeV between particles could create a micro black hole but that they would either instantly evaporate completely or evaporate down to a stable mass and cause no harm to the surroundings other than releasing some low level radiation, mostly as HEAT. In other words, collapsed matter may settle down within our environment into thermodynamic and spatial equilibrium.
Penrose showed in 1974 that a black hole can be formed in classical high energy head-on collisions. In 1987 Hooft claimed graviton dominance and black hole formation at the Planck level, which has been further clarified. The production of black holes during particle collisions can be easily understood based upon the hoop conjecture suggested by Thorne in 1972. The hoop conjecture states that a micro black hole forms if and only if a large amount of energy is packed into a small region that can be surrounded by a hoop with the Schwarzschild radius of the energy. Voids within a lattice can provide an idealistic environment for this phenomenon as a large amount of energy can be concentrated at the moment of particle collision. The voids also maximize the graviton potential based upon the radius of the void. In addition to voids, ions can be focused into a concentrated area using the flux from a magnetic coil and then subject to a high voltage charge from electrodes.
Since the 1990’s scientists have witnessed unexpected behavior within Bose Einstein Condensates at temperatures near absolute zero. These condensates, when subject to a certain magnetic field, are triggered to collapse further into a vortex within the condensate resulting in a “bosanova” which is basically a quantum scale explosion or emission of radiation and heat. It was also witnessed and measured that some of the bosons and/or matter seemed to disappear afterwards. Inverted Rydberg matter is a type of matter which exhibits properties similar to a “Super Atom” or Bose Einstein Condensate, only at elevated temperatures.
Rydberg matter is a phase of matter formed by Rydberg atoms; it was predicted around 1980 by É. A. Manykin, M. I. Ozhovan and P. P. Poluéktov. There is also a form called inverted Rydberg matter which has ultra high densities.
The table below calculates the quantity of inverted Rydberg matter that would be required to be collapsed within a void to result in a micro black hole based upon theory:
|Inverted Rydberg Matter Density||1.00E+29||ions/cm3|
|Hydrogen Ion Weight||1.01E-27||kg|
|Hydrogen Ion Weight||1.01E-24||g|
|Planck Mass(Minimum Mass Required)||2.20E-02||g|
|Number of hydrogen Ions||2.18E+22||ions|
|Void radius (spherical)||0.003735221||cm|
|Schwarzschild radius=Planck Radius||3.26E-29||cm|
The collision energy can be maximized by heating a gas within a confined volume in addition to electrical stimulation made to the lattice or particles. In quantum models with large or highly warped extra dimensions, gravity becomes strong at a low scale in a TeV range so that one can conclude that a reactor that provides TeV level collision energies can produce dark matter with TeV~1 sized event horizons. As I stated before, dark matter can also carry a charge. This charge can possibly be exploited in order to maximize the ionization potential of the singularity. Negatively charged dark matter would feed preferentially from positively charged particles and vice versa. My theory, based upon evidence is that hot dark matter may occur at the sub TeV level as evidenced by current “Cold Fusion” devices.
It is also believed that any voltage potential across a void or crack may trigger magnetic alignment of the matter contained within. This alignment of charge ends up creating less repulsion of atoms within the ultra-high density matter.
It is the combination of ultra-high dense matter, high concentrated energy, magnetic alignment and compression of matter within a void, along with the magnified effects of quantum gravity which then trigger a collapse into hot dark matter.
Nature seeks equilibrium. If collapsed matter forms within a crack or void the hot dark matter immediately seeks thermodynamic and spatial equilibrium within its local environment. In other words it will “flash” or burst Hawking Radiation until it reaches a stable level similar to when hot condensate of water flashes down in temperature when external pressure is relieved. Hot dark matter is believed to trigger Beta Decay. If the mass of collapsed matter is below 22 micrograms it will most likely evaporate completely according to theory. This evaporation will release a burst of energy and in turn may generate further instabilities within the lattice. If the collapsed matter is above 22 micrograms in mass it may create a micro black hole and/or collapse additional matter nearby or take in additional energy during this transition. It will do whatever necessary to come into equilibrium with its local position in space time. Once formed dark matter will be sensitive to all external stimulation. Hot dark matter has the potential of transmitting various levels of radiation to its environment due to secondary reactions from fission, fusion and chemical as they “tear apart” their surroundings and literally vaporize matter leaving beta decay, fission and fusion by-products.
Particle waves approaching hot dark matter will be blue-shifted in radiation spectrum resulting in the highest energies at the surface of the dark matter. Particles waves leaving the surface will be red-shifted in energy levels resulting in lower level radiation seen by outside observers. It is the blue shifting of this radiation that maximizes the energy levels at the surface of the dark matter and allows them to break down the coulomb barrier of other atoms pulled into the vicinity.
Based upon the background theory above and weighing heavily upon recent research of potential quantum black hole production at the CERN LHC I theorize the following:
A new potential source of energy and matter transmutation can and has been realized based upon the creation and evaporation of hot dark matter. The reaction includes the following steps:
1) Packing of ultra-high density matter such as inverted Rydberg matter within a void/crack in the size range given above
2) Addition of energy across the voids/cracks to create both charge concentration & accumulation and magnetic alignment of the matter
3) Further compression of void due to thermal expansion
4) Repulsion of the matter contained within from the atoms within the walls of the crack or void.
5) Collapse of the matter due to enhanced strength of quantum gravity.
6) Instantaneous evaporation of the dark matter to radiation/heat.
7) Intense localized radiation & heat from the collapsed hot dark matter may trigger local secondary fission, fusion and chemical events.
It is also believed by the author that a strong enough localized magnetic and energetic impulse might also trigger a collapse of gaseous matter within a void that contains less dense matter, such as air or noble gasses as witnessed by such devices as the Papp engine and other magnetic impulse motors.
Any good theory should fit observation as well as make predictions. Below is a short summary of my theory’s predictions to be further developed.
- Ed Storms, well respected in the field for years predicts based upon observations the anomalous effect occurs in the cracks and voids of the lattice. Hot dark matter matter from hydrogen ion collapse will occur under the right conditions in these locations due to concentrated energy charges and high energy collisions aided by the hoop effect. Prof. Celani has witnessed similar effects within his metals.
- Once hot dark matter forms it will seek thermodynamically and spatially stable states within its surroundings. Hot dark matter above may remain in equilibrium within a collapsed void of a lattice until that void itself expands or is decayed or destroyed through collapse. Once the void’s properties change in any way the hot dark matter will instantly evaporate down to a new stable thermodynamic and spatial state within their environment instantly, creating a burst of energy (Hawking Radiation). Prof. Celani has witnessed that once his metal lattice had been loaded with hydrogen and had previously shown anomalous heat generation he could shut the system down, transport it and it would immediately show further anomalous heat upon excitation without additional loading. This theory supports the idea that the dark matter possibly remained within compressed voids within the lattice during transportation.
- Conductivity inversion effects in a metal wire/lattice. It is well understood that a dark matter carries charge, angular momentum and a radius like any other particle. It is also understood that when it evaporates it will emit charged particles. This can have a direct effect on the conductivity of a metal as this collapsed matter fills up voids within a lattice.
- Temperature Inversion. Dr. Brian Ahern mentioned temperature inversion within samples in the nanometer range. It is well understood that dark matter can consume matter and energy from their environment, cooling their surroundings. Eventually, they will evaporate that energy and entropy back to their surroundings through Hawking radiation.
- Hawking Radiation should emit RELATIVELY low energy level radiation due to quantum gravity red shifting of the radiation as it escapes. This has been witnessed in most all anomalous heat events.
- The amount of energy released can be great. This has been witnessed at times during demonstrations of the Intelligently/Papp Engine as well as claimed by Rossi, DGT and Dr. Celani. Since Hawking Radiation obeys e=mc2, very high levels of energy may be released as the newly formed hot dark matter seeks thermodynamic and spatial equilibrium within its environment. Some of this radiation will include sub atomic particles. Higher levels of radiation will also be seen during future upsets of the thermodynamic and spatial upset conditions of the hot dark matter’s environment.
- Dark matter evaporation may create secondary Beta Decay reactions and products within the near vicinity of the collapsed matter. It does this by blue-shifting any radiation near its surface. This collective, high-energy blue-shifted energy can take down local coulomb barriers as atoms collapse nearby. The temperature of a micro black holes can be as high as 5.6×1032 K!
- The “heat after death” syndrome is caused by the ongoing evaporation over time of the dark matter as it continues to seek a thermodynamically stable state in its immediate environment as well as emit Hawking black body radiation. This has been witnessed in many cold fusion situations. Since hot dark matter emits charged particles it should aid in sustaining the birth, evolution and evaporation of more dark matter in the vicinity.
- Number of extra dimensions of space-time at the quantum level can be predicted since this will have a direct impact on the estimation of quantum gravity scales.
- Embrittlement. Hot Dark Matter can pass through any matter, slowly collapsing it. On-going surface radiation within any known structure will gradually decay its integrity due to local heat effects as well as further collapse and transmutations of local atomic structures. This has been witnessed in Dr. Celani’ s wire.
- Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons (ULMNs) and other radiation: Due to the fact that any radiation escaping the locality of the micro black hole has undergone a shift in energy due to the effect of quantum gravity, one would expect any particles formed would carry reduced momentum.
- Eruptions within metal lattices or other structures: Hot dark matter can give off heat as high as 5.6×1032 K. Hawking evaporation of dark matter, depending upon the initial size of its event horizon can result in an explosion due to the instant and intense radiation and heat. Explosions have been witnessed in some labs and possibly in nature with lightning balls, etc. According to my theory, even if hot dark matter does not completely evaporate and based upon the instantaneous attempt by hot dark matter to reach new thermodynamic steady-state conditions after upset, explosions are possible. Hot dark matter collisions may also end up in annihilation.
- Additional understanding of the hidden dark matter and energy within the universe: My theory postulates dark collapsed matter will be annihilated by other dark matter particles on their way to the earth’s core.
- Additional understanding of the source of energy within the Sun’s corona from collapsed matter. My theory postulates that the intense heat radiated from the suns Corona is actually from these micro black holes consuming matter and radiating high temperature heat.
- Additional understanding of the cause of heat generated at the center of the earth’s core. My theory postulates that this collapsed matter will seek its way over long periods of time to the center of any gravitational body such as the earth. This dark matter will either annihilate itself or coalesce, releasing heat from the core.
- They are one of the the primary sources of heat radiation at the earth’s core. Since black holes have mass and are pulled by the earth’s gravity it makes sense that they would annihilate at the earths core with other dark matter particles.
- Ability to transmute matter and energy. This has been witnessed in recent DGT data at ICCF-17 and by others.
- Any stable structure in nature may be “deteriorated” over time by passing dark matter
- Any living organism in nature may be adversely affected over time by dark matter entering their body due to localized nuclear, chemical and thermodynamic effects. Since it is weakly interacting it should pass through although it may cause damage on its way.
- Uncertainty. Based upon Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principal the creation of dark matter, which is a quantum mechanical construct, will create additional uncertainty in its surroundings. It is therefore theorized that any location in the universe that has a large mass of dark matter either residing or being created will have an increase in this uncertainty. Within a piece of equipment this uncertainty will manifest itself as equipment failures and reliability issues as the dark matter created over time takes up residence and/or passes through the structure of the equipment and gradually destroy it from further collapse, low level Hawking radiation, Fission, Fusion and Chemical Reactions. Dark matter may escape from devices and may pass through biological organisms. Although it may instantly find a stable state, over time as it is excited by outside excitation from any energy in the environment, it may become unstable and trigger radiation, fission, fusion and chemical reactions within any organism. Due to gravity, it should find its way over long periods of time to the earth’s core, where it should be annihilated by other dark matter particles. My theory predicts that any humans developing this technology, unless they find a way to isolate the dark matter from the outside environment, will succumb to this uncertainty, which has manifested itself over the past 50 years of cold fusion research.
- If this anomalous heat effect is basically collapsing and evaporating matter under relatively normal conditions that tells us that all of the regular matter in the universe will collapse over time. And since Hawking showed that matter and anti-matter particles pop out of the vacuum and either destroy each other or the anti-matter particle might get sucked into a black hole to aid in its evaporation and leave a particle of matter that escapes into space then the universe might be stuck in sort of a do-loop of matter creation and evaporation to and from the quantum field.
- This effect explains the increasing rate of expansion of the universe. The universe is filled with collapsed dark matter with dark kinetic energy. The dark matter is collapsing additional ordinary matter and evaporating it over time, increasing dark kinetic energy. Dark matter with high kinetic dark energy is also “racing through” regular matter, expanding the universe at an increasing rate. At some point dark matter may release all of its entropy back to the environment through hawking radiation. The mass of dark matter is also decreasing due to the annihilation at the center of gravitational bodies.
- Superconductivity. Since hot dark matter can carry a charge and also react immediately to any external electrical stimulation, it should increase the conductivity of any matter it resides within, such as a lattice.
Copyright 2012 Stewart D. Simonson
All Rights Reserved
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.